Kipling and
the Classical World

(by Susan Treggiari)

the article


[June 22 2012]


BIBLIOGRAPHY


References to authors alone indicate the book or article listed here.

  • Items from the News and Letter Sections of the Kipling Journal:

    KJ 15 (Oct. 1930) 66-7
    KJ 68 (Dec. 1943) 15-16. Letter Bag Extract from a book 68 (Dec. 1943) 15-16
    KJ 76 (Dec. 1945) 21 (C. R. Graves)
    KJ 101 (April 1952) 2-3, reporting an article by Jarvis in Country Life (October 12, 1951).
    KJ 126 (June 1958) 16-7 (discussion on the Parnesius stories led by Bagwell-Purefoy)
    KJ 195 (Sept. 1975) 4: ‘The Genesis of “Puck”’ (the reminiscences of May Bradshaw Jays)
  • Allen, Sir Stephen, ‘On the Great Wall’, i, KJ 96 (Dec. 1950) 1-13 (historical background)
  • Allen, Sir Stephen, ‘On the Great Wall’, ii, KJ 97 (April, 1951) 11-14
  • Ames, Charles Lesley, ‘Mithras, god of the morning’ , KJ 144 (Dec. 1962) 31 (short note responding to Tingey)
  • Annan, Noel, ‘Address’, KJ 238 (June 1986) 42-51
  • Beard, Mary, John North and Simon Price, Religions of Rome 2 vols (1998)
  • Beresford, G. C. ‘The Veritable Kipling’ KJ 12 (Jan. 1930) 9-12
  • Bodelsen, C. A., Aspects of Kipling's art (1964)
  • Bramwell, Peter, ‘The spirit of the land’ KJ 302 (June 2002) 20-27
  • Breeze, David J. and Brian Dobson, Hadrian’s Wall (4th edn. 2000)
  • Brøgger, Inger K., ‘Kipling’s “The manner of men”’, KJ 294 (June 2000) 24-32
  • Browne, B. S., extract from letter, KJ 57 (Sept. 1934) 25-6
  • Bruce, J. Collingwood Handbook to the Roman Wall (1895) Rev. ed. I. A. Richmond, I. 12th edn. (1966)
  • Butterworth, H. L. ‘The Corbridge stone’, KJ 147 (Sept. 1963) 22-5
  • Cambridge Ancient History 2nd edition’ XI The High Empire A.D. 70-192 (Cambridge 2000)
  • Carrington, Charles, Rudyard Kipling. His life and work (1955)
  • Carrington, Charles, Letter, KJ 134 (June 1960) 19-21.
  • Carrington, Charles, ‘The legions' road to Rimini’, KJ 34.164 (Dec. 1967) 7-8
  • Carrington, Charles, ‘Pedantry about Parnesius’, KJ 166 (June 1968) 8-10 (historical context)
  • Carrington, Charles, ‘More pedantry about Parnesius’ KJ 167 (Sept. 1968) 8-9 (on Parnesius’ route north)
  • Carrington, Charles, ‘Kipling on Roman Britain’ KJ 208 (Dec. 1978) 15-6 (new information on possible source for route and on Corbridge stone)
  • Carrington, Charles, ed. Kipling’s Horace (1978)
  • Casey, P. J. ed., The end of Roman Britain (1979)
  • Coates, J. D., ‘Failure and success of civilisation in Puck of Pook’s Hill’, KJ 47.215 (Sept. 1980) 15-26 (also deals with ‘The Church that was at Antioch’ and ‘The manner of men’)
  • Collingwood, R. G. and R. P. Wright, The Roman inscriptions of Britain I (1965) revised by R. S. O. Tomlin (1995)
  • Courtauld, S. A., ‘Kipling’s literary allusions’, KJ 25 (March 1933) 7-19
  • Courtauld, S. A., Letter, quoting letter of C. L. Graves of 1941, KJ 76 (Dec. 1945) 21
  • Courtauld, S. A., [translation of Preface to Horace Odes V] KJ 93 (April 1950) 3
  • Crook, J. A., Law and life of Rome (1967)
  • Crook, J. Mordaunt, Brasenose. The biography of an Oxford college (Oxford, 2008)
  • Crouch, Marcus Treasure Seekers and Borrowers. Children’s books in Britain 1900-1960 (1962)
  • Dunham, Beatrice, ‘Our weekend at Bateman’s’, KJ 280 (Dec. 1996) 40-6
  • Forster, R. H., ‘Corstopitum’, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne series 3. 5 (1911-1912) 216-6, 240
  • Frere, Sheppard, Britannia. A history of Roman Britain (3rd edn. 1987)
  • Gaisser, Julia ‘The Roman Odes at school: the rise of the imperial Horace’,
  • Classical World 87.5 (1994) 443-56
  • Garnsey, Peter, Social status and legal privilege in the Roman Empire (1970)
  • Gibbon, Edward, Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
  • Gilbert, C. D., ‘Kipling’s Latin master’, KJ 215 (Sept. 1980) 27-30
  • Godley, A. D., Reliquiae edited by C. R. L. Fletcher (1926)
  • Gordon, R. L., ‘Reality, evocation and boundary in the Mysteries of Mithras’, Journal of Mithraic Studies 3 (1980) 19-99
  • Green, Roger Lancelyn, ‘Kipling and Horace’, KJ 124 (Dec. 1957) 8-11
  • Green, Roger Lancelyn, ‘Hon. Secretary’s Notes’, KJ 127 (Sept. 1958) 3-5
  • Green, Roger Lancelyn, Kipling and the Children (1965)
  • Green, Roger Lancelyn, Discussion meeting on "The Church that was at Antioch" and "The Manner of Men", KJ 157 (March 1966) 14-18
  • Green, Roger Lancelyn, ‘Kipling and the Classics’, KJ 172 (Dec. 1969) 3-4
  • Harrison, James, ‘The world made subaltern’ KJ 202 (June 1977) 8-13 (on ‘The Church that was at Antioch’)
  • Harrison, Stephen J., ‘The reception of Horace in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries’, Cambridge companion to Horace (2007) : 334-346.
  • Haverfield, Francis J., Archaeologia Aeliana series 3. 9 (1913) 267-9.
  • Houlton, E. N., ‘Under which King?’, KJ 208 (Dec. 1978) 6-9 [on the evolution of the character]
  • Jarvis, Claude Scudamore, Desert and Delta (1938)
  • Jones, A. H. M., The Later Roman Empire 284-602 (Oxford 1964)
  • Kipling, R., The War in the Mountains: I ‘The roads of an army’, II ‘Podgora’, III ‘A pass, a king, and a mountain’, IV ‘Only a few steps higher up’, V ‘The Trentino front’ (Sussex ed., 1938)
  • Lewis, Lisa A. F., ”References", "cross-references", and notions of history in Kipling's Puck of Pook's Hill and Rewards and Fairies’, KJ 327 (June 2008) 23-39
  • Liebeschuetz, J(ohn) H. W. G, Antioch. City and imperial administration in the later Roman Empire (1972)
  • MacKenzie, Donald, ‘Kipling and Northernness’, KJ 323 (Sept. 2007) 21-453
  • MacMullen, Ramsay, Soldier and civilian in the later Roman Empire (1963)
  • MacMullen, Ramsay, Paganism in the Roman Empire (1981)
  • Maidment, R. A., ‘Crofts and King’, KJ 218 (June 1981) 26-8
  • Mann, J. C., ‘Hadrian’s Wall: the last phases’ in P. J. Casey ed., The end of Roman Britain (1979) 144-51
  • Marsden, E. W., 'Greek and Roman artillery'. Technical treatises (1971)
  • Martindale, Charles, ‘Introduction’ in Charles Martindale and David Hopkins, eds., Horace made new. Horatian influences on British writing from the Renaissance to the twentieth century (1992) 1-26
  • Matthews, John, Western aristocracies and the imperial court, AD 364-425 (1975)
  • Maurois, André, ‘Kipling and his Works from a French Point of View’, KJ 30 (June 1934) 42-47
  • Medcalf, Stephen, ‘Horace’s Kipling’ in Charles Martindale and David Hopkins, eds., Horace made new. Horatian influences on British writing from the Renaissance to the twentieth century (1992) 217-39
  • Meiggs, R, Roman Ostia (1960)
  • Morrison, J. S. and J. F. Coates, The Athenian trireme. The history and reconstruction of an ancient Greek warship (2nd ed. 2000)
  • Oxford Classical Dictionary 4 (2012)
  • Page, David, ‘Editorial: Graves, Kipling, Knox, Godley and all’, KJ 306 (June 2003) 6-7, 65
  • Price, Lorraine, ”Uncle Crom' Part 2’, KJ 270 (June 1994) 21-9
  • Rickman, Geoffrey, The corn supply of ancient Rome (1980)
  • Rivet, A. L. F., ‘Rudyard Kipling’s Roman Britain’, KJ 206 (June 1978) 5-15
  • Rivet, A. L. F., ‘Rudyard Kipling’s Roman Britain: fact and fiction’, Inaugural lecture, University of Keele, 6th November 1976
  • Scott-Giles, C. W., ‘Historical background of some "Puck" stories’ KJ 138 (June 1961) 15-21
  • Sergeant, David, ‘”The Church that was at Antioch” a reading’, KJ 330 (March 2009) 29-42
  • Stewart, J. I. M., ‘Toast’ KJ 153 (March 1965) 7-10 (nothing on the Roman stories but a brilliant meditation on the layers of history)
  • Rosemary Sutcliff, Rudyard Kipling (1960)
  • Rosemary Sutcliff, 'Kipling for children', KJ 156 (Dec. 1965) 25 -28 (brief overview)
  • Talbert, Richard J. A., ed., Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World (Princeton, 2000)
  • Tingey, A.. J. C. , ‘Kipling's allusions to the Mithraic cult’, KJ 142 (June 1962) (Dated, relies on Cumont)
  • Tompkins, J. M. S., The Art of Rudyard Kipling (1965)
  • Treggiari, Susan, ‘A giddy parergon: Kipling and the classics’, Classical News and Views/Echos du monde classique 14 (1970) 1-12.
  • Treggiari, Susan, ‘Quisque suos patimur manes: the classical writers at Oxford’, Classical News and Views/Echos du monde classique 16 (1972) 69-74
  • Treggiari, Susan, ‘Kipling's classics’, Kipling Journal 39 (1972) 7-12
  • Treggiari, Susan, (With A. Treggiari) ‘The Craftsman’, KJ 196 (1975) 4-6
  • Treggiari, Susan, ‘On Kipling's Horace’,Classical News and Views/Echos du monde classique 29 (n.s. 4 ) (1985) 421-433
  • Treggiari, Susan, Letter, KJ 306 (June 2003) 56-7
  • Trevelyan, G. M., A layman’s love of letters (1954).
  • Turcan, Robert, The gods of ancient Rome. Religion in everyday life from archaic to imperial times (2000)
  • Vos, Maxwell R. D., ‘A dedication’, KJ 97 (April 1951) 12-13
  • Webb, G. H., ‘That’s for Remembrance’, KJ 221 (March 1982) 24-8
  • Wells, Colin M., The Roman Empire> (London 1992)
  • Williams, Rowan, ‘The Address at the service of Commemoration, Burwash, 26 January 2006’, KJ 318 (June 2006)10-13
  • Wiseman, T. P., ‘Horace, Faunus and Kipling’, KJ 314 (June 2005) 23-8 ( 26-7 on Puck)






Notes on the text


(2) Lancelyn Green, Kipling and the children 51-73 gives a good full account.

(3) Beresford 161-75; Carrington, Kipling 32-4; Green, Kipling and the children 66-8; Houlton, KJ 208.6-9; Gilbert, KJ 215.27-30; Maidment, KJ 218.26-8; Mordaunt Crook 241, 268, 285. Kipling kept in touch with Crofts 1883-6 ( Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 1.45-6, 112, 117-23, 138).

(4) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.370 to John Kipling 15-18 March 1909.

(5) Beresford, KJ 12.9-12 at 9, 10. There is also an amusing description in Beresford 150-3.

(6) "An English School"’, Land and Sea Tales 268.

(7) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 1.85 to Cormell Price, 19 Sept. 1885.

(8) Something of Myself ch. 2, Penguin ed. 1977 29. Cf. Green, Kipling and the children 66.

(9) Debits and Credits 278-9.

(10) Green, Kipling and the children 71.

(11) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 2.239 to Cyril Herford, 9 May 1896; Carrington Kipling 189. The New Testament, in koine Greek, which was the lingua franca of the eastern Roman Empire, is regarded as easier than classical Greek. Kipling read it with Haslam, who left USC in 1879 for a chair in New Zealand. Kipling met him in 1891 at Dunedin and ‘he had clean forgotten how he used to lick us over Greek Testament on Monday mornings’.

(12) The same wording occurs in a letter to the Rev. Aubrey Neville St John Mildmay (on whom see Pinney’s note at Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.350), who was among other things a lecturer in Classics at the University of British Columbia and had translated ‘Hymn of breaking strain’ into Greek (Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.350, 8 May 1935), where Kipling adds ‘Not even a fragmentary memory of Greek Testament on Monday mornings at school!’ Later he specifies about two terms of Greek Testament (6.371 to Mildmay, 22 June 1935).

(13) ‘The uses of reading’ (Wellington College, May 1912), A Book of Words 88-91. The anti-Latin argument appeared in "Regulus" (A Diversity of Creatures 261-3) in the mouth of Hartopp. For the use of ‘the imperial Horace’ to inculcate moral ideas, shown especially in "Regulus" see Gaisser 449-52.

(14) O beloved kids 113 Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.453, [3 Oct. 1910]. For another mention see Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.170 to H. A. Gwynne, 6 Dec. 1904. He also encouraged John with his Latin (Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.447, to Andrew Macphail, 4-11 Aug. 1910).

(15) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 2.77 to Edward Lucas White, 3 Jan. 1893 (Plato)

(16) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.432 to Sir John Bland-Sutton, 29 May 1928; 6.151 to S. A. Courtauld, 30 Dec. 1932.

(17) J. W. Mackail, Selected epigrams from the Greek Anthology (1890). Mackail (1859-1945) married Margaret Burne-Jones in 1888 (Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 1.154, 246). Kipling saw him quite often in 1889 in London ( Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 1.356, 357, 360, 366) and Mackail got Kipling elected to the Savile Club (Carrington, Kipling 139-40; cf. Something of Myself ch. 4, Penguin ed. 1977 65) but Kipling did not like him (Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 1.243, 2.267; Carrington, Kipling 113, 257, 267-8, 301, 320), though he approved of his literary judgement (Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.423). Mackail got the O.M. in 1935 and was a pall-bearer at Kipling’s funeral.

(18) Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, by Cyril Bailey and Richard Smail.

(19) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.151, to Courtauld, 30 Dec. 1932. Cf. 5.397 to Frank N. Doubleday, 22 Dec. 1927: ‘I have embellished with faked Greek epigrams’.

(20) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.371 to Mildmay, 22 June 1935. He suggested Mildmay might ‘restore them to their originals’. Mildmay translated one into Greek and was offered another (Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.401, 11 Oct. 1935).

(21) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.484, 17 Feb. 1918. Fletcher (1857–1934) was a historian, Fellow of All Souls (1881), Tutor and then Fellow of Magdalen (1883-1906), who resigned his fellowship in order to concentrate on writing. Kipling wrote the poems for his School History of England (1911). He taught at Eton 1914–15 and 1917-19. His wife’s father was W. W. Merry (1835-1918), Greek scholar, writer of Latin verse, Rector of Lincoln, Public Orator. Two sons were killed in the War. See Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, by C. H. K. Marten and Richard Symonds.

(22) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.392, 9 Oct. 1909. McPhail was Professor of Medical History at McGill University 1907-37.

(23) 70, 229-30.

(24) Classicists now usually write ‘Vergil’, but here I use the form Kipling used.

(25) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.464 to Fletcher, 4 June 1917. See Medcalf 224-6; Gaisser.

(26) Something of Myself ch. 2, Penguin ed. 1977 29; cf. Medcalf 218.

(27) Early Verse 160-1 or Carrington, Kipling 39-40. Cf. Kipling ‘An English school’, Land and Sea Tales 268 for its genesis. A striking number of the schoolboy poems have Latin titles.

(28) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 1.169 and 3.322: cras ingens iterabimus aequor (Odes 1. 7.32: ‘Tomorrow we shall traverse again the huge sea’, the words of Teucer, here applied to work). In the second example, Kipling paraphrases, ‘the crass engine of the daily grind has me’. Kipling’s Horace 69 has the neat summary: ‘Our crew has come through worse than this -- / Set up the drinks again! / Tomorrow our huge engines go crashing through the main!’ King uses the line metaphorically (‘Regulus’, A Diversity of Creatures 239).

(29) Some earthquakes’, Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. of travel 61-2.

(30) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.26 to Fletcher, [c. 22 March 1911] (three dips into the Odes to tell his fortune – as one might do with the Bible or Virgil).

(31) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.143, 4 Jan. 1913: Odes 2.6.13-4. Horace is saying that he would like to live at Tarentum/Taranto if he could not be at Tibur/Tivoli.

(32) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.486, 10 April 1918.

(33) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.419, 19 Dec. 1916: ‘ “Res mihi non me rebus” ---- literally “Things for me not me for things” ’. Epistles 1.1.19 runs ‘et mihi res, non me rebus subiungere conor’ (‘I try to subordinate things to me, not myself to things’).

(34) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.76, early Jan. 1932 (Odes 3.30).

(35) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.175, 18 April 1933: Odes 4.7.13 [Kipling means ‘reparant’]: ‘Yet the losses in the sky are repaired by the swift moons. We …’ There are 29 Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. from Kipling to Courtauld (1865-1953) at the University of Sussex (archiveshub.ac.uk/data/gb181sxms51); 9 in Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5, starting in 1928 with a letter on the Latin acrostic of "Dayspring Mishandled" (Limits and Renewals 3), which shows them already on close terms .

(36) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.382, 29 July 1935. This draws on Horace Odes 1.3.9-12: ‘ illi robur et aes triplex / circa pectus erat, qui fragilem truci / commisit pelago ratem / primus’, ‘there was oak and triple bronze around the heart of the man who was the first to entrust his fragile raft to the sea’. Kipling had already exploited these lines in ‘Poseidon’s law’: ‘When the robust and brass-bound man / commissioned first for sea / his fragile raft’.

(37) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.400, 11 Oct. 1835 and note.

(38) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.555, 19 June 1930 and note. Cf. A Book of Words 90: ‘one cannot re-express an idea that has been perfectly set forth’.

(39) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.253 to Sir Herbert Baker, 22-23 Feb. 1934. Baker (1862-1946) was Rhodes’ architect, with whom Kipling had corresponded at least since 1900 ( Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.31-2).

(40) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.263 to Baker, 17-20 March 1934.

(41) E.g. Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.439 to McPhail: ‘We dined, auspice Tenero’ (‘Tener being our augur’ or ‘under the auspices of Tener’) at [Warren] the Vice Chancellor’s, in allusion to ‘auspice Teucro’, ‘Teucer being our augur’ (Horace Odes 1.7.27). ‘Tener’ (‘tender’) must conceal a man’s name, pace Pinney. Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.444 to Fletcher, 21 July 1910: ‘Ibimus, ibimus’, ‘we shall go, we shall go’ (Horace Odes 2.17.10, of the journey into death, promising to stick to Maecenas) ‘on one contract’, so ‘we’ll go together’, meaning that they would split royalties equally.

(42) L. Price, KJ 270.21-29 at 28.

(43) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 2.213, 5 Nov. 1895. Someone thought the line from the Fasti which Kipling liked (above) meant ‘Here where the discreet islander breaks horses.’.

(44) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.21, 5 July 1920: Felix qui ante ora, misquoted from Aeneid 1.94-6: o ter quaterque beati, / quis ante ora patrum Troiae sub moenibus altis / contigit oppetere! (‘O thrice and four times blessed, those to whom it fell to die before the eyes of their fathers beneath the high walls of Troy’) because he confuses it with a more familiar remark from Georgics 2.490: Felix qui potuit (‘Happy is he who could’), which he quotes Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.319 to Macphail, 10 Dec. 1934: ‘ “Happy is he etc.” ’. Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.253, 13 Aug. 1925 has the opening of Aeneas’ narrative to Dido of the fall of Troy: infandum [, regina,] iubes renovare dolorem (Aeneid 2.3; ‘You bid me[, queen,] renew an unspeakable grief’).

(45) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 1.86 to Cormell Price, 19 Sept. 1885. Cf. Against Catiline 1.1: ‘Quo usque [tandem], Catilina [abutere patientia nostra]?’, ‘how far (I ask you), Catiline (will you abuse our long-suffering)?’.

(46) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.448, to McPhail, 4-11 Aug. 1910.

(47) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.177 to Brander Matthews (1852-1929, scholar and literary man [ Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 2.125 note]), 7 Feb. 1905.

(48) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.177 (above).

(49) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.238 to McPhail, 27 May 1914.

(50) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.136 to Gilbert Murray, 18 June 1903.

(51) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.82 to Bland-Sutton, 1 Feb. 1932.

(52) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.198 to Gilbert Murray, 18 Nov. 1905. 3

(53) Courtauld, KJ 25.15-16; Lancelyn Green, KJ 172.3-4; Treggiari, Classical News and Views 14 (1970) 1-12, KJ 181.7-10; Medcalf; Page, KJ 306.6-8, 65; Treggiari, Letter, KJ 306 (June 2003) 57.

(54) E.g. Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.288 to Gwynne, 10 April 1926(Rome not a great naval power).

(55) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.448, to McPhail, 4-11 Aug. 1910.

(56) Speech of Fannius against the bill of Gaius Gracchus (Julius Victor 6.4); Juvenal 3. 60-85.

(57) "The Brushwood Boy", The Day’s Work 367; "The Vortex", A Diversity of Creatures 383.

(58) Kipling first met him in the Easter holidays of 1882 and did not make an entirely favourable impression (Medcalf 218).

(59) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.423, to Edmund Gosse, 19 April 1910. Verrall (1851-1912) was a fellow of Trinity from 1877 and then Professor of English Literature at Cambridge 1911. He was an authority on Greek tragedy and also wrote on Horace (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, by R. Smail). Kipling’s Hon. Doctorate from Cambridge was awarded 1908.

(60) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.247, to Anna Smith Balestier, [30 June] 1907. Tyrrell (1844-1914) held three classical chairs in succession (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, by L. C. Purser and R. Smail).

(61) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.515, 528, 5.11, 126.

(62) Carrington, Kipling 27-8.

(63) O beloved kids 83-9, Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.363-8 2-3 March 1909, Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.368-71, 15-18 March 1909.

(64) Where Hannibal beat the Romans 217 BC.

(65) Chiusi, an ancient Etruscan town.

(66) Mount Soracte is a striking landmark, immortalised by Horace Odes 1.9.

(67) O beloved kids 88, Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.366.

(68) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.368-9.

(69) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.369-70.

(70) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.450-6.

(71) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.464 4 June 1917. See too The War in the Mountains, V: ‘The Trentino Front’. Kipling still regarded the Italian army as the Exercitus later ( Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.254 to Sir Herbert Baker, 22-23 Feb. 1934).

(72) The War in the Mountains 167. He also repeats the idea that the Italian forces represent the Roman army (164).

(74) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.462 to Carrie and Elsie, 9 May 1917.

( 75) Something of Myself ch. 4, Penguin ed. 1977 72-3; Carrington, Kipling 160-1.

(76) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.413-422.

(77) Itineraries in Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.410-11 (Lyons, Avignon), 418 (Arles, Nimes, Narbonne, Avignon, Les Baux), 4.27-32 (Nimes, Arles, Carcassonne, Toulouse ), 179 (Bourges, Rheims), 230 (Avignon, Arles, Les Baux, Lyons, Autun). The setting is often of as much interest as surviving buildings and artefacts in museums. They also toured Normandy with Elsie and John in August 1911 ( Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.42-3). I have not seen the unpublished typescript ‘R. K.’s Motor Tours’ ( Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.390).

(77) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.415-6 to Claude Johnson, [late March 1910]. It is near the Roman water-mill of Barbegal.

(78) O beloved kids 162 (not in Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. ).

(79) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.228 to McPhail, 19 March 1914: ‘I love Rome and specially her aqueducts’. He had read Frontinus’ book on the water supply of Rome with interest (above).

(80) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.53-61.

(81) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.63-74.

(82) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.74-5.

(83) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.110-18.

(84) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.140. The extracts from the motoring diary in KJ 233.10-24 do not mention Roman remains.

(85) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.161-4.

(86) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.210-27.

(87) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.274-93.

(88) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.487-8.

(89) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.35.

(90) ‘The uses of reading’ 92.

(91) Many Inventions. See in general MacKenzie, KJ 323.24-6. Lancelyn Green, Kipling and the children 205-6 suggests some inspiration from Edwin Lester Arnold, The wonderful adventurs of Phra the Phoenician. References in parentheses are to the story.

(92) Kipling hears it as ‘Pollock, Erckmann, Tauchnitz, Henniker’ (four surnames). Perhaps pollakis ??eirgasmai tautes technes heneka: ‘I have often ?? been worked on account of this employment (skill)’.

(93) Casson; Morrison and Coates; http://www.triremetrust.org.uk/.

(94) Quadriremes and quinqueremes had several men to an oar.

(95) Casson 87.

(96) Casson 82-3.

(97) Casson 325-6.

(98) In general, see Tompkins 71-84; Stewart, KJ 153.7-10; Rosemary Sutcliff, KJ 156.25-28; Annan, KJ 238.42-51; Bramwell, KJ 302.20-27; Lewis, KJ 327 23-39; Crouch 20-1. References in parentheses are to the story.

(99) He may have been comes Britanniarum, Count of the Britains (John Matthews, 175 n.6).

(100) ‘The Genesis of “Puck”’, KJ 195.4 (the reminiscences of May Bradshaw Jays).

(101) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.189 to Edward Bok, 28 July 1905; Dunham, KJ 280.40-6, describing how the Kiplings introduced two young Americans to Sussex and English history in 1931, suggests his method.

(102) KJ 101.2-3, reporting an article in Country Life (October 12, 1951). Cf. Jarvis 47: ‘I saw where the Centurion met the children….’; KJ 68.15-16.

(103) Something of Myself ch. 7, Penguin ed. 1977 138-9.

(104) Carrington, Kipling 376-7.

(105) Rivet, KJ 206.8.

(106) Mommsen I 194.

(107) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.104-5. Kipling subscribed himself to Murray ‘Ever yours in the paths of research’ ( Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.136).

(108) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.192, 27 Aug. 1905, 198 18 Nov. 1905, both to Murray.

(109) Something of Myself ch. 7, Penguin ed. 1977 140.

(110) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.195-6 to Edmonia Hill, 11 Nov. 1905; Something of Myself ch. 7, Penguin ed. 1977 142.

(111) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.417 to White, 5 April 1910.

(112) Carrington, KJ 134.19-21.

(113) Lycett 518, citing correspondence (KJ 225.44), where Kipling says ‘Gibbon was the fat heifer I ploughed with’. See Gibbon IV chs. 25-7; quotation from ch. 26.

(114) IV ch. 27.

(115) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.216-7, 6 July 1906.

(116) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 2.77-8.

(117) E.g., The unwilling Vestal. A tale of Rome under the Caesars (1918) ILetters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.495 to White, 18 May 1918). See also Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney. vol. 5.99. The novel is available on the web.

(118) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.234, 3 April 1907.

(119) 220, 221.

(120) Georgics 4. 125-148. Kipling remembered Virgil’s advice to throw dust on bees to make them settle (‘The Vortex’, A Diversity of Creatures 391)

(121) KJ 166.8-10. See too Allen, KJ 96.1-13, 97.11-14.

(122) Rivet, KJ 206.6.

(123) Rivet, KJ 206.8 = Rivet 9.

(124) Handbook to the Roman Wall (1895). The 1966 edition gives 15 feet to the rampart walk and about 20 feet effectively.

(125) The provinces 186.

(126) Oxford Classical Dictionary 4: ‘Wall of Hadrian’.

(127) On all these misconceptions see Rivet, KJ 45.206 9-10 = Rivet 10-11.

(128) For a Kiplingesque description, discussion and bibliography see MacMullen, Soldier 119-28.

(129) Rivet, KJ . 206.10 = Rivet 11-12.

(130) Vegetius de re militari 4.22; Ammianus Marcellinus 23.4.4-7.

(131) Rivet, KJ 206.9 = Rivet 10. See Oxford Classical Dictionary 4: ‘Artillery’; Marsden esp. 234-65.

(132) KJ 15.66-7 for the apparent support for Kipling; Bruce 84-9 for the remains of Onnum (Haltonchester) and surroundings. Rivet, KJ 206.8 = Rivet 9.

(133) Cf. KJ 126.16-7; Butterworth, KJ 147.22-5; Rivet, KJ 206.7-8 = Rivet 7-9. Carrington (KJ 167.9, 208.15-6).

(134) B. S. Browne, KJ . 57.25-6. Oman (1860–1946), Chichele Professor at All Souls College, worked on both ancient (e.g. Seven Roman Statesmen of the Later Republic [1902]) and modern history (e.g. History of the Peninsular War) (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, by Paddy Griffith).

(135) Haverfield, Archaeologia Aeliana third series. 9 (1913) 267-9.

(136) Something of Myself ch. 7, Penguin ed. 1977 141.

(137) Collingwood and Wright I plate 1166.

(138) Tomlin I p. 780.

(139) Archaeologia Aeliana series 3. 9 (1913) 269.

(140) Sir John Dudley Gibbs (Jack) Medley (1891–1962), who became Vice-Chancellor of Melbourne University, was son of a fellow of Keble and read Greats at New College, Oxford from 1910, where he became a friend of his tutor Gilbert Murray. He collected Kipling’s books. He qualified for a first-class degree (which he did not formally take until 1938) in 1914. See Australian Dictionary of National Biography; G. Serle, Sir John Medley (Melbourne,1993), not seen.

(141) I have not found any list of participants. R. H. Forster and W. H. Knowles were in charge of the dig (Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle upon Tyne series 3 5 [1911-1912] 216-6, 240).

(142) KJ 105.1-2. That last sentence is a flight of fancy, which does not fit the story. I cannot obtain the Melbourne Age of November 22nd, 1952, the source of this report.

(143) KJ 167.9, 208.15-6.

(144) Allen, KJ 97.11-14.

(145) Breeze and Dobson 39-43.

(146) Frere 341-4.

(147) 1906-95; Professor of Romano-British History and Archaeology, Durham University 1956-71, FSA, FBA. See Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.

(148) KJ 97.11.

(149) For this see, Wells 123-30.

(150) Jones 607-86 for the empire in general. Centurions survived in the old-style units, the legions and the auxiliary cohorts and alae which still survived, alongside the new formations, vexillations, scholae and new-type auxilia (Jones 634). Breeze and Dobson 209-12 give an up-to-date account.

(151) Frere 353-7. Cf. Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.385 to Macphail, 18 August 1909): ‘Politically, just now we are living at the beginning of the 5th century ….’; 392 to Macphail, 29 October 1909: ‘We in England are laboriously reproducing the 5th century – after Honorius withdrew the legions.’

(152) 244. (Frere 354 holds he did not draw on Wall troops). See also Mann.

(153) Frere 409-12.

(154) Rivet, KJ . 206.10-11 = Rivet 12.

(155) MacMullen, Paganism 132.

(156) See especially Jones 938-43.

(157) Tingey, KJ 142.12-8; Ames, KJ 144.31. For cautious surveys of the ancient evidence see MacMullen Paganism 118-27; Cambridge Ancient History 2 xi 996-7, Beard, North and Price i. 285-8 and see index, ii. 14.6, 12.5. Turcan gives an attractive introduction.

(158) They were under the protection of the planets, respectively Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, Moon, Sun and Saturn.

(159) Gordon 48-53.

(160) Gordon 42-2.

(161) The grades were Corax/Raven, Nymphus/Male Bride, Miles/Soldier, Leo/Lion, Perses (Persian), Heliodromus/Sun-runner, Pater/Father.

(162) Rivet, KJ . 206.12-14 = Rivet 13-16.

(163) On the army in the first century AD see Wells, 123-151.

(164) KJ 101.2-3= Jarvis 47..

(165) KJ . 30.46-7.

(166) 78.

(167) Scott-Giles, KJ 138.16. The article shows convincingly how Kipling did this in the Norman and several other stories, but does not discuss the three Roman stories.

(168) This will have been set in c. AD 410.

(169) Lancelyn Green, Kipling and the children 202.

(170) Something of Myself ch. 7, Penguin ed. 1977 140.

(171) Sutcliff 76.

(172) Lancelyn Green, Kipling and the children 202-3.

(173) Kipling returned to the landscape of the Wall in "Fox-hunting" (1933): ‘When Rome lay massed on Hadrian’s Wall, / And nothing much was doing, / Her bored Centurions heard my call / O’ nights when I went wooing. / They raised a pack -- they ran it well / (For I was there to run ‘em) / From Aesica to Carter Fell, / And down North Tyne to Hunnum.’

(174)For Puck as Faun see Wiseman. Cf. ‘Pan in Vermont’ (1893).

(175) Cf. Horace Odes 1.19.13, 3.8.3-4.

(176) See Carrington, KJ 164.7-8

(177) Suetonius, Julius 51 (‘Townspeople, look after your wives; we’ve brought the bald adulterer’); cf. 80.2-3.

(178) Cf. Coates, KJ 47 15-26.

(179) Rutherford, KJ . 258.16-17.

(180) Kipling knew the Anglo-Saxon poem, ‘The Ruin’ which describes the marvellous Roman buildings of, almost certainly, Bath ( "The Uses of Reading", A Book of Words 80-1). See this web-site, which has the original and a translation).

(181) Coates, KJ 47.15-26; Bodelsen 114-6; Green, KJ 157.14-18; Williams, KJ 318.10-13; Sergeant, KJ 330.29-42; Medcalf 235-6; Sergeant, KJ 330.29-42. References in parentheses are to Limits and Renewals.

(182) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.401-2, 26-27 Dec. 1927; cf. 428, 12 May 1928, with note.

(183) Acts 8.14-25.

(184) Acts 9.32-10.48.

(185) Quotations: Acts 10.28, 34, 45, 47.

(186) Acts 11.1-18.

(187) Acts 10.19-30. For the city see Liebeschuetz.

(188) Acts 13.1-14, 51-2, 14; quotation from 14.28.

(189) Acts 13.46-8.

(190) The operation, without anaesthetic, was of course extremely painful for adult males.

(191) Acts 15; quotations from verses 10 and 29.

(192) Galatians 2:11-15.

(193) Acts 16.1-3.

(194) Acts 16.23, 18.12-16.

(195) Acts 18.22

(196) Acts 18.23-21.17.

(197) Acts. 21.21, 22.1-21, 23.1-2.

(198) Acts. 21.25.

(199) Though a freedman, he was promoted by the emperor Claudius, whose powerful secretary Antonius Pallas (the emperor’s mother’s freedman) was his brother.

(200) Acts 23-26. Appeal: 23.10-12, 26.32.

(201) NRG on 101.

(202) Williams, KJ 318.12.

(203) KJ 157.16.

(204) Soldiers Three 321-53 at 339-51.

(205) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 6.88 to Courtauld, 12 Feb. 1932: ‘What I was after … was to see how much Horace you’d disentangled out of the stuff. (I made the old uncle in “The Church that was at Antioch” quote or paraphraze him about a dozen times.)’ Courtauld did not do much about Horace in his article (KJ 25.7-19).

(206) Horace Odes 3.12.2-3: aut exanimari metuentis patruae verbera linguae. Kipling reacts to this in Kipling’s Horace 59.

(207) Horace Satires 2.1.86: solventur risu tabulae (‘the tables [legal tablets] will be destroyed with a laugh’).

(208) Horace Satires 1.5.100-101: credat Iudaeus Apella, / non ego (‘let the Jew Apella believe that, not I’). Apella, a Latin form of a Greek name (Apelles), is probably intended to suggest slave or freed status.

(209) Odes 3.4.65.

(210) Probably Odes 2.3.6-7: seu te in remoto gramine per dies / festos reclinatum bearis (‘whether you make yourself happy lying on secluded turf as feast days come round’). Bodelsen 114 unconvincingly thinks only of Gethsemane.

(211) Horace Odes 1.2.9: piscium et summa genus haesit ulmo.

(212) Horace Odes 2.7.5-7: … Pompei, meorum prime sodalium? / cum quo morantem saepe diem mero / fregi… (‘Pompeius, first [i.e. dearest, not earliest] of my [drinking] companions, with whom I often broke the lagging day with neat wine …’). Horace alludes to Callimachus, Epigrams 2.2-3.

(213) Odes 1.13.3-4: meum / fervens difficili bile tumet iecur (‘my liver swells boiling with indigestible bile’).

(214) Horace Odes 3.28.16: dicetur merita Nox quoque nenia (‘Night will also be sung in a well-deserved chant’). (Horace uses the future, not the subjunctive, as Kipling thought.) The ode is neatly summarised in Kipling’s Horace 29.

(215) There is a Marsic wild boar at Horace Odes 1.1.28. The poet uses the word Sabina of the valley above Vicovaro where his villa was (Odes 3.1.47).

(216) Odes 1.24.2, a lament, briefly and seriously paraphrased in Kipling’s Horace 53.

(217) Used of 'Rabbits-Eggs' (‘Slaves of the Lamp I’ in Stalky & Co. 55).

(218) Kipling had used ‘Home Sacrifice’ in Puck of Pook's Hill 156.

(219) Acts 20.13-14.

(220) Sergeant 32.

(221) Green, KJ . 157.14, quoting Something of Myself ch. 7, Penguin ed. 1977 142.

(222) Coates, KJ 47.15-26; Bodelsen 115; Green, KJ 157.18-20; J. Harrison, KJ 202.8-13; Brøgger, KJ 294.24-32. References in parentheses are to Limits and Renewals.

(223) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.494-5, 15 Aug. 1929; 497-8, 28 Aug. 1929; 499 11 Sept. 1929

(224) Casson 297-8.

(225) Kipling remembered this wind: ‘Here where our stiff-necked British oaks confront Euroclydon!’ ("The Roman Centurion’s Song"). He might also have found it in H. W. Longfellow ‘Mass for dying year’ (1839) 29 ‘The storm-wind from Labrador, The wind Euroclydon’ or elsewhere in English literature. It is identified, in a Mediterranean context, with the Levanter. Oddly, Liddell and Scott, Greek Lexicon, call it ‘the wind between Eurus [E. or ESE] and Notos [S.]’ and so ESE.

(226) At 247 Quabil says ‘Too much muttering and laying-on of hands for me’. Kipling was amused by a Canadian girl’s reaction to the Bishop of London (Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.437 to Elsie, 25 June 1928: ‘ “A little too much laying on of hands, though” ’).

(227) Carrington, Kipling 139. Medcalf 236 thinks Kipling had a sense of himself as an artist being like this.

(228) We know Paul was beaten at Philippi (Acts. 16.37) and avoided being scourged by the Roman authorities in Jerusalem because a citizen (Acts 22.24). See Garnsey 261. Roman lictors beat men with the rods they carried (virgae); military sticks or clubs (fustes) were also used for severe or light beatings (Garnsey 136-41).

(229) Garnsey 129-31. The first persecution by Roman authorities was triggered by the Fire of Rome in AD 64. According to tradition, it was then that Paul was executed by beheading.

(230) The text goes on: ‘what advantageth it me, if the dead rise not?’

(231) Diodorus Siculus 36.10.

(232) Acts 19.10.

(233) ‘… though each end of the Mediterranean scoffs at the other, both unite to mock landward, wooden-headed Rome and her stiff-jonted officials’. See Casson 314-21; Crook 223-5; Rickman 120-34.

(234) Philo Against Flaccus 26, quoted by Rickman 124.

(235) Rickman 132-4. Cf. Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.494-5.

(236) Oxford Classical Dictionary 4: ‘Food supply’.

(237) Crook 223-7.

(238) Suetonius Claudius 19.2; Meiggs 54.

(239) Suetonius Claudius 20.1, 3; Meiggs 54-7. Work began in AD 42 and may have gone on until 64. Kipling refers to ‘Ostia’s mole’ in 1933 in ‘Samuel Pepys’.

(240) The motif begins with Euripides Medea 1-13 (Kipling may have read Murray’s translation). In Latin, it occurs in Ennius Medea (quoted by the author of the Rhetorica ad Herennium 2.34); Catullus 64.171-2; Virgil Aeneid 4.657-8. Kipling used it for pathos in ‘V.A.D. (Mediterranean)’: ‘Ah, would swift ships had never been, for then we ne’er had found, / These harsh Ægean rocks between, this little virgin drowned, / Whom neither spouse nor child shall mourn, but men she nursed through pain / And — certain keels for whose return the heathen look in vain.’

(240a) For Kipling’s skill in parody cf. Harry Ricketts, “Kipling: lost parodist”, KJ 305 41-54.

(240b) See this website.

(240c) "An English School" 268-9.

(240d) 'The Journalistic touch’ in The Casual Ward (1912) 24-37.

(240e) Cf. "Mesopotamia"

(241) Acts 18.14-15.

(242) Acts 18.14-15. ‘that on the stretched forefinger of all Time / Sparkle for ever’ (The Princess, part II, l.355). ‘

(243) Acts 18.14-15. There are whose study is of smells … Some … Others … Me … Me’, parodying Horace Odes 1.1. 3ff.: Sunt quos … hunc … illum …gaudentem … mercator … est qui … multos … venator … me… me. Praised by Martindale 4 as showing ‘an alert understanding of the nuts and bolts of Horace’s style’. Cf. Stephen Harrison 339: ‘he brilliantly takes off the strangeness of the poet’s lyric style and especially its extraordinary word-order’.

(244) Acts 18.14-15. Cf. A. and S. Treggiari, KJ 196.4-6; Medcalf 230-1, showing it was written as the companion piece to Graves’ 1918 poem on Virgil (itself suggested by Kipling) published as ‘Odes 5.2’ in the Fifth Book.

(245) Acts 18.14-15. Medcalf 234.

(246) Acts 18.14-15. Medcalf 232-4.

(247) Acts 18.14-15. Medcalf 234-5.

(248) Acts 18.14-15. Medcalf 236-7.

(249) Acts 18.14-15. Published for Pepys’ tercentenary in the College magazine (Green, KJ 127.2). Cf. Medcalf 237-9.

(250) Acts 18.14-15. ‘Quintus Horatius Flaccus’ Fifth Book of Odes translated into English by Rudyard Kipling and Charles Graves’.

(251) Many of Graves’ versions had previously appeared in The Spectator. The books include a few versions by friends. An example of the style is this version of the opening of Odes 1.20, originally addressed to Maecenas: ‘Dear Acton, next Wednesday, at dinner, / I cannot but honestly think / You’ll find that my claret is thinner / Than you are accustomed to drink.’ (Not Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.)

(252) Treggiari, Classical News and Views 16 (1972) 69-74.

(253) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.444 to Fletcher, 29 April 1917. These are prose epigrams about love and nature or epitaphs (including war epitaphs), nearly all with a Greek or Roman flavour, which pretend to be translations. ‘The editor of these translations has not been able to trace the originals even in the rare cases where the author states the language from which the translation was made.’

(254) Medcalf 229, 304. I have not seen this material.

(255) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.439-40, 21 April 1917.

(256) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.442-3, 24 April 1917.

(257) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.443-4, 29 April 1917.

(258) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.476, 18 Dec. 1917.

(259) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.479, 12 Jan. 1918. Kipling liked ‘Docta curandum iecur’, which appears in the published version as the translation of ‘His bowels [shall be sought] in charge / by learned [doctors]’ and ‘Quisquis est uni [sibi non inempti / largus honoris]’, lit. ‘whoever is generous to himself alone with unbought honour’ (i.e. ‘Content to honour his own self / With his own cheques’ ), as well as the penultimate stanza.

(260) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.476-7, 2 Jan. 1918.

(261) Medcalf 229-30 citing a letter of 24 March 1918. It was published in The Years Between. Horace too had a light-hearted adaptation of the theme of a famous Greek palinode (Stesichorus’ to Helen), Odes 1.16, where at beginning and end he recants a earlier attack on a woman, but the real subject is anger, as Kipling’s is grief.

(262) Courtauld, KJ 76.21 = Page, KJ 306.6.

(263) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 3.226 to Lucas, 9 Nov. 1906. Kipling admired the humour of both Lucas and Graves ( Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.413 to John St Loe Strachey, 26 Oct. 1916). There is one letter to Graves ( Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.107, 1 Feb. 1922).

(264) Webb, KJ 221.26.

(265) 1872–1955. Eton and King’s College, Cambridge. He taught at Eton 1895-1925 and then became Master of Magdalene. He published several volumes of Latin verse, including a spoof, C. Licini Calvi poemata nuperrime inventa (‘Newly discovered poems of Gaius Licinius Calvus’ [1954]). During his vice-chancellorship, Stanley Baldwin was elected Chancellor of the university. (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, by D. K. Money). During his Mastership, Kipling was elected an Honorary Fellow of Magdalene. Godley addressed verses to him in 1923 and 1925 (Godley, Reliquiae I.338, 343).

(266) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.484, to Fletcher, 17 Feb. 1918.

(267) 1856–1925, Harrow; Scholar of Balliol who won the Gaisford Prize for Greek Verse (1878); like Fletcher, Fellow and Tutor of Magdalen 1883-1912, Public Orator 1910-25, translator of Horace’s Odes and Epodes (1898), contributor and editor of The Oxford Magazine and author of several books of humorous verse in English Latin and Greek (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, by E. C. Godley and Richard Smail). He addressed a poem to Fletcher in 1913 (Godley, Reliquiae I.290-2; there is also a letter from 1922 [Reliquiae I.334]). His rhyming review of Graves, Lauds and Libels was published in Nov. 1918 (Reliquiae I.128-9). He makes a joke to Powell in 1922, threatening to publish a fifth book of his verses, as Horace had done (Reliquiae I.336).

(268) Translation: Vos, KJ 97.12-3.

(269) ‘His Latin Preface to Horace Odes Book V (1920) – a delightful skit sprung upon a band of scholars by Mr Kipling in 1918 – will be read while humour and irony remain human faculties’ (Fletcher in Godley, Reliquiae I.14). Translation: Courtauld, KJ 93.3.

(270) John Undershell Powell 1865-, Scholar of Balliol, won the Gaisford Prize (1885) for translating part of Shelley’s ‘Adonais’ into Greek. Fellow of St John’s College. (Not Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.) He and Godley exchanged Latin poems in 1917 (Godley, Reliquiae I.320; see also 335-6, 339-40).

(271) 1888–1957, brilliant Eton and Balliol classicist; once tutor to Harold Macmillan; Fellow of Trinity; high Anglican priest; author of volumes of verse and ‘Absolute and Abitofhell’ (The Oxford Magazine, 1912). He taught at Shrewsbury 1915. After his conversion to Roman Catholicism in 1917 he became chaplain in Oxford, continuing to write theological works and detective stories (Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, by Sheridan Gilley).

(272) For the authorship of various poems see Green, KJ 124.10.

(273) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 4.480, 12 Jan. 1918. The version is worthy of Beetle. ‘Hankinson Major’ had also contributed a translation of ‘Lollius’ (a letter of 25 Dec. 1917, quoted by Pinney in his note).

(274) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.39, to Fletcher, 5 Dec. 1920. Godley had, e.g. a library called Grosspaniandrumpinacotheca, which held the best ms., a Japanese professor called Toshius and a Patagonian Tomirotius.

(275) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.263-4 to Fletcher, 21 Sept. 1925. ‘Secura tellus cum foret hostium’ (‘when the land was free of care for foes’) may be an expansion of Kipling’s ‘Securely’ and mean that Horace is feeling secure (carefree) because of the return of peace to Britain. Kipling enjoyed the Reliquiae and pays a generous tribute to Godley ( Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.321-2 to Fletcher, 9 Dec. 1926). See Medcalf 232-4.

(276) Easterling, KJ 224.31-6; Treggiari, Classical News and Views 29 (n.s. 4 ) (1985) 421-433; Medcalf 231-2.

(277) Carrington’s name for them (Kipling’s Horace vii).

(278) Kipling’s Horace 7, on Odes 1.11. Kipling used the name of the addressee of this ode, Leuconoe, who thought of getting her future predicted, for the prudent Carrie when they were making plans for security, while he himelf was ‘Horace’ (Something of Myself, ch. 5, Penguin ed. 1977 86).

(279) 35 on Odes 2.19; cf. 57 on 2.13.

(280) 19 on Odes 1.19.

(281) Remembered in "The Tree of Justice", Rewards and Fairies 318-9.

(282) A Book of Words 89-92.

(283) "The Classics and the Sciences", A Book of Words.

(284) Peloponnesian War 1.22: he hopes his readers will be ‘those who want to see clearly what has happened and think that what is going to happen will be closely similar after the manner of men’s affairs (according to the human condition/situation)’ and will find his work useful.

(285) The War in the Mountains passim. Quotation 167.

(286) The War in the Mountains 140.

(287) The War in the Mountains 166.

(288) "The King’s Task" (1902).

(289) "The Riddle of Empire", Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. of Travel 284.

(290) "Regulus", A Diversity of Creatures 250, 251, 256, 270

(291) "A Centurion of the Thirtieth", Puck of Pook's Hill 152.

(292) "On the Great Wall", Puck of Pook's Hill 187.

(293) Trevelyan 33.

(294) Letters, (Ed. Thomas Pinney) vol. 5.99, 2 Dec. 1921. The novel is available on the web.

(295) Something of Myself ch.7, Penguin ed. 1977 142.



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