by John Radcliffe)
|notes on the text|
On 4 August 1914, in breach of international law, her own treaty obligations, common sense and common human decency, Germany sent her armies across the frontier into Belgium and laid siege to Liège. The policy of Schrecklichkeit, or frightfulness, was immediately activated. The people of Belgium were to be terrorised into offering no resistance, for the Schlieffen Plan did not permit of delays for any cause. Paris must be entered not more than six weeks after German mobilisation. The Germans persuaded themselves besides that any Belgian resistance, apart from that offered, to their astonishment, by the Belgian army, was illegal, and might be punished by the severest methods.On Tuesday, 1 September, in The Times, Kipling spoke:
So hostages were taken to secure good civilian behaviour, and when that did not work, were shot: six at Warsage on the first day of the invasion. Simultaneously the village of Battice was burned to the ground, "as an example". [See Barbara Tuchman, The Guns of August, New York: Dell 1963, pp. 198-359] On 5 August some Belgian priests were shot out of hand on the pretext that they had been organising sharpshooters. On 6 August Zeppelins bombed Liège, thus inaugurating a standard twentieth-century practice, as Barbara Tuchman points out. On 16 August Liège fell, after a defence which excited the world's admiration. On 19 August, at a place called Aerschot, 150 civilians were killed. On 20 August Brussels was occupied.
That day and the next, massacres occurred at Andenne (211 shot), Seille (50) and Tamines (384). The Germans indulged themselves in an orgy of burning and looting. On 23 August Dinant was sacked, and 644 men, women and children were lined up and shot in the public square: included was a baby three weeks old. The roads south and west were by now choked with refugees. Namur fell to the Germans, and there was another massacre at Visé: all those spared fled across the frontier into Holland, except for 700 boys who, in another innovation with a long future, were deported to help with the harvest in Germany. The French fought heroically at the battle of Charleroi, but were nevertheless forced to retreat. The Germans entered Louvain.
Two days later they began their sack of Louvain, which went on for nearly a week and was soon the most notorious of their crimes. The town was looted and burned, the inhabitants driven off or massacred, and the great university library, one of the greatest treasures of its kind in Europe, was utterly destroyed. All these incidents were faithfully reported by American newspapermen, and quickly found their way into the British press. The horrified condemnations of the neutral, perhaps even of the Allied, press, seem to have startled the German high command: the sack ended suddenly on Sunday, 30 August.
For all we have and are,As Charles Carrington, who himself fought through the war as an infantry officer, notes:
For all our children's fate,
Stand up and take the war.
The Hun is at the gate!
Our world has passed away,
In wantonness o'erthrown.
There is nothing left to-day
But steel and fire and stone!
Though all we knew depart,
The old Commandments stand:—
"In courage keep your heart,
In strength lift up your hand."
Once more we hear the word
That sickened earth of old:—
"No law except the Sword
Unsheathed and uncontrolled."
Once more it knits mankind,
Once more the nations go
To meet and break and bind
A crazed and driven foe...
... the ferocity of the German war machine grew more apparent. In January 1915 the first air-raids were made on undefended English towns; and in February the German Admiralty announced its policy of unrestricted submarine warfare. Rudyard's reaction took the form of three short stories written that winter, "Swept and Garnished" written in October, "Sea Constables" in February, and "Mary Postgate" in March.Critical responses
...as a final horror,something that may not come across to the modern reader, but reminds me of how I was told again and again as a small child, that the Germans had cut off the little Belgian boys' right arms so that they could never serve their country. In the story it is implied very quietly. The sister plucks at the little boy's sleeve to take him away, and he cries out in pain. 'What is that for?', said Frau Ebermann., 'To cry in a room where a poor lady is sick is very inconsiderate. 'Oh, but look, lady!' said the elder girl. Frau Ebermann looked and saw.
When Kipling assembled these tales in 1917, the world had changed, and the last two tales in the book, "Swept and Garnished" and "Mary Postgate", bear witness to it. These two dreadful tales assault the mind. They are the utterances of deep outrage. Both have, at times, if read quickly, the quality of a hardly suppressed scream. This, though painful, is integral to both, since both describe a repressed horror that in the end breaks out. "Swept and Garnished", first published in January 1915, has the nature of an immediate - almost a headlong - act of reprisal...
We can dismiss any suggestion that this was meant to be a supernatural story. The public missile should vibrate with the public conviction. Moreover, those of his characters who touch the supernatural, with the not very significant exception of Hummil in "At the End of the Passage", do so in health and in their right minds. But the suffering of children was a dangerous incentive to Kipling, and at times it looks as if the ghostly company, who are waiting in the enemy's capital city till their people come for them, were rather an inflamed vision of his own than a likely hallucination of the old lady.