"The Four Angels"

"With the Night Mail"


(notes edited by John McGivering and John Radcliffe)



the poem
Publication

This poem follows "With the Night Mail" in Actions and Reactions.

It is collected in:
  • Songs from Books
  • Inclusive Verse
  • Definitive Verse
  • Sussex Edition vol 8 p. 165 and vol 34 p.205
  • Burwash Edition vols 8 and 27
  • Cambridge Edition, Ed. Pinney p. 856.
Pinney notes that the poem did not appear in the original periodical publication of "With the Night Mail" in McClure's Magazine and Windsor Magazine.

The poem

The poem echoes the first three chapters of the "Book of Genesis", the first book in the Old Testament. Ann Weygandt notes (pp.120-121) that it reflects the early influence on Kipling of the pre-Raphaelite poets, notably Rossetti. She points out (p. 177) that the phrase 'Adam lay ybounden' is to be found in Ancient English Carols edited by Edith Rickert (Chatto and Windus, 1925).

Joyce Tompkins in her chapter on 'Man and the Abyss', comments (p. 193):
'The Four Angels', attached to 'With the Night Mail', presents Adam's sin in Eden as laziness, the refusal, even when the tutelary angels of the elements suggest it, to exploit his circumstances. Therefore the Angel of the Fire sets the flame of desire in his heart. The desire is for ever unattainable, but outside Eden-Wall it drives him to the mastery of the elements. It is thus through 'black disaster' that he fulfils his nature.
John Lee in KJ 335 writes of the relationship between this poem and "With the Night Mail":
"The Four Angels" seems both to summarize and amplify. It places "With the Night Mail" as part of the Fall narrative, and at the same time adds resonance to the function of fire within the story. The final stanza makes it clear that Adam, for all his mastery of the four elements, has 'never reached his heart's desire' and never will, for 'The Apple Tree's cut down!' This Adam is caught in an endless and restless pursuit of certain, god-like knowledge, and is driven to that pursuit of mastery by a mysterious fire in his breast. This has led him to master the Earth, with ploughs, the Sea, with ships, and finally, as we have seen in this story, the Air, with dirigibles.

To that extent, Adam's conquest of the air is on a par with his conquests of the sea and land; a consequence of the Fall and, while admirable, also to an extent a display of the weakness of nature that led him to Fall and be subject to desire in the first place – though, in Kipling's recasting of the Fall narrative, it is not at all clear whether Kipling sees the Fall in terms of moral failure. Kipling's rewriting of the Fall narrative naturalizes the eternal restlessness of men. The nature of that restlessness, and its effects, is amplified by the way in which the dirigibles, the particular tool in Adam's quest for mastery in this story, seem to stand in an analogous relationship to Adam himself; like Adam, they are driven by a mysterious fire —'the restless little imp shuddering', 'the very heart of the machine—a mystery to this day.'


[J.McG./J.R.]

©John McGivering and John Radcliffe 2020 All rights reserved