[May 16th 2017]
The first publication of this poem was in the United Services College Chrnicle no. 4, June 30th 1881, when Kipling was fifteen. It was one of the Schoolboy Lyrics published in Lahore in 1881.This was an edition of around fifty for private circulation arranged by his mother the year before Rudyard's arrival in the city at the age of sixteen, to work as a journalist. It is listed in ORG as No 8.
A tragic song of old age defeated. An old man, sent out by his three daughters to plough a field by the sea, seems bound to perish in the incoming tide as night falls. The story may be based on an old Devonshire legend which Kipling had happened on in his reading, or he may simply have invented it. Five stanzas of the original eleven stanza version were omitted in the later collections.
After his unhappy years at Southsea, Kipling was sent to United Services College at Westward Ho! in Devon at the age of twelve, in 1878. Because of his poor eyesight he was no good at rugby or cricket, and the Head, Cormell Price, who was a friend of his father, gave him the freedom of his library, where he read voraciously. See Stalky & Co. pp. 217-8)
He also wrote himself, experimenting with styles and language and themes, borrowing from many other writers, finding his own voice, determined that he would become a published poet. Here - transposed to Devonshire - there is an echo of the implacable 'Border Ballads', mediaeval folk poems of the savage strife between rival chieftains on the borders between England and Scotland; perhaps also a hint of the fairy-tales of the Brothers Grimm. The young Kipling had also encountered the interest in the mediaeval past expressed by the pre-Raphaelites and their successors, Burne-Jones, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Morris, who were well known to Kipling through his visits in the school holidays to the house of his Aunt Georgie, Georgina Burne-Jones.
See also his later poems "Tarrant Moss" (1887), Heriot's Ford" (1890), "The Last Rhyme of True Thomas! (1894), and "The English Way" (1929).
Kipling was always, incidentally, fascinated by the mystery and power of the sea, and wrote of it later in many stories and poems.
colts in this context a colt is a young male horse under four years old. It is, in fact, rather doubtful if three young horses would have the strength, stamina or inclination to haul a plough which, depending on the land, usually requires a couple of heavy shire-horses, but the youth and liveliness of the colts serves to counter-point the weakness of the old man.
crookedly a ploughman prides himself on being able to leave elegant straight furrows in the field.
share in this context the metal blade of characteristic shape that cuts the furrow and, with the mouldboard, leaves the ridge leaning at the right angle.
crow and daw a widely distributed genus of medium to large birds in the family Corvidae which crows, ravens, rooks and jackdaws.
shingles in this context and usually in the singular, the stones on the beach. This is the rather ominous last verse of the Schoolboy Lyrics version; what follows is left to the reader's imagination.
twain two. Samuel Langhorne Clements was a river pilot on the Mississippi in America. Legend has it that he heard the men taking soundingss reporting the depth of water as
rising sea the tide is flowing or perhaps the weather is blowing up a bit.
shore-spume the white foam that collects at the top of the beach
gulls seabirds of the family Laridę. .
forewheel as the name implies, the wheel at the front of a single-furrow horse-drawn plough.
furrows fill it is not clear what has happened - perhaps an unexpectedly high spring tide or tidal wave
over the hill an expression with several meanings - he might have died, he might simply be too old for the hard work of handling the plough.
©John McGivering and John Radcliffe 2017 All rights reserved