THE FATHER OF LIGHTNINGS
Kipling sailed for Santos, the traditional route to Sao Paulo before air and long-distance bus travel. From Santos he travelled inland beside the Sao Paulo Ralway to visit the Cubatao hydro-electric scheme of the Sao Paulo "Light" (The San Paulo Tramway, Light and Power Co).Since these developments the San Paulo "Light" has continued to increase the capacity of the plants on the Cubatao river. The Henry Borden complex, located on the foot of the Serra do Mar, in Cubatão, encompasses two high (720 m) fall power plants, called External and Underground, with 14 groups of generators, powered by Pelton turbines, with a total installed capacity of 889 MW.
This was inaugurated in 1927 with two penstocks (sluices) and an installed capacity of 35,000 kw and was expanded over the years to eight penstocks and 484,000 kw, before the unstable mountain-side dictated further expansion as an underground scheme. The "little astonished river" was the Cubatao river and the one whose system was diverted to fill the dam was the Rio Tiete. [P.W.]